"... the most significant complexity of many applications is not technical. It is in the domain itself, the activity or business of the user. When this domain is not handled in the design, it won't matter that the infrastructural technology is well conceived. A successful design must systematically deal with this central aspect of the software."
Eric Evans, Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software, 2003


"... he [Ralph Johnson] brought out the point that architecture is a subjective thing. A shared understanding of a system's design by the expert developers on a project. Commonly this shared understanding is in the form of the major components of the system and how they interact. It's also about decisions,..."
Martin Fowler, Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture, 2003


"We apply the analytic procedure in order to create a conceptual framework within which we can draw conclusions about the means by which a system solves its tasks. Indeed, we do this with the express purpose of establishing a solid foundation from which we can carry out a subsequent synthesis. This synthesis, in turn, acts to verify the conceptual model as an explanation. The process is an iterative one."
Tom Ritchey, Refactoring, 1991,


"Sometimes creativity just means the daily work of helping others to see a problem in a different way."
Joseph Badaracco


"Man will occasionally stumble over the truth, but most times he will pick himself up and carry on."
Winston Churchill


"Important developments often arise out of analogies. By comparing a topic you understand poorly to something similar you understand better, you can come up with insights that result in a better understanding of the less-familiar topic. This use of metaphor is called 'modeling.'"
Steve McConnell, Code Complete: A Practical Handbook of Software Construction, 2007


"If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough."
Albert Einstein


"Simplicity is the final achievement. After one has played a vast quantity of notes and more notes, it is simplicity that emerges as the crowning reward of art."
Frederic Chopin


"Our failure to master the complexity of software results in projets that are late, over budget, and deficient in their stated requirements."
Grady Booch, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, 2007


"The fundamental task of the software development team is to engineer the illusion of simplicity"
Grady Booch, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, 2007


"Abstraction can reduce complexity by spreading details across a network of components"
Steve McConnell, Code Complete: A Practical Handbook of Software Construction, 2007


"Use models to find out how things work or to find solutions to puzzling dilemmas. Create models to communicate ideas and understand things you can’t see. Recognize models and the countless ways models are used for working, playing, teaching and explaining. Assess models for what they do and don't tell you about the real thing and how useful they are"
Boston Science Museum


"It usually takes more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech."
Mark Twain


"The structure of a software system will reflect the communication structure of the team that built it."
R. E. Fairley


"Any fool can write code that a computer can understand. Good programmers write code that humans can understand."
Martin Fowler, Refactoring, 1999


"One thing expert designers know not to do is solve every problem from first principles. Rather, they reuse solutions that have worked for them in the past. When they find a good solution, they use it again and again. Such experience is what makes them experts. Consequently, you'll find recurring patterns of classes and communicating objects in many object-oriented systems."
Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John M. Vlissides , Design Patterns, 1994


"We all want our software systems to be fast, reliable, easy to use, readable, modular, structured and so on. But these adjectives describe two different sorts of qualities. On one side, we are considering such qualities as speed or ease of use, whose presence or absence in a software product may be detected by its users. These properties may be called external quality factors. ... In the end, only the external factors matter. ... But the key to achieving these external factors is in the internal ones..."
Betrand Meyer, Object-Oriented Software Construction, 2000


"Our primary tool for design is abstraction. It allows us to effectively use encapsulation, inheritance, collaboration, and other object-oriented techniques."
Rebecca Wirfs-Brock, Alan McKean, Object Design: Roles, Responsibilities, and Collaborations, 2002


"Patterns provide software designers with a common vocabulary. As designers, we use patterns not only to help us leverage and duplicate successful designs, but also to help us convey ideas to developers using a common vocabulary and format."
Deepak Alur, Dan Malks, John Crupi, Core J2EE Patterns: Best Practices and Design Strategies , 2003


"Object modeling addresses the 'what' of the business; its concern is only with what is to be built, never why or how. Prior to the object modeling session, a good object architect inquires about the 'why' questions, and raises a red flag if no one at the client site knows the answers. Clients not clear on their strategy are not ready to discuss what they want to build."
Jill Nicola, Mark Mayfield, Mike Abney, Streamlined Object Modeling: Patterns, Rules, and Implementation, 2001


Some software analysis and design notes

The best software designs look simple, but ... it takes a lot of hard work to design a simple architecture.
Grady Booch, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, 2007 ---- (more words of wisdom on design...)

A set of general articles on software analysis and design topics:

  • Object Modeling
    All software teams writing in programming languages like Java and the .Net family of languages have an underlying object model represented by the classes of objects they define in their source code. Therefore, it is not a question of whether to build an object model or not. Rather, it is a question of whether the underlying object model provides the best framework within which to implement the features required by the client.
    Read the full article...

  • Lists Considered Harmful
    How many times have you had to wait forever for a system to display a long list of things that you then had to scroll through looking for the particular item you want? We look at some strategies for better handling of large lists.
    Read the full article...

  • Four Logical Layers
    One of the most common initial strategies for selecting the types of object needed in a software system, service or component is to define a set of logical layers into which we can place candidate classes.
    Read the full article...

  • Fascinated By Software Development
    For nearly thirty years, I have found the design and construction of computer software utterly fascinating.
    Read the full article...

  • Ease of Use is the Next Killer Feature
    If you cannot rely on analysts, customers and product marketing to identify the next 'killer feature' for your product, where do you look? For many mature software products and markets, the answer may be as simple as 'ease of use'.
    Read the full article...

  • Elegant Software Design
    The best software designs are ingeniously simple. They are elegant. Great software designers strip away all unnecessary complexity, hiding unavoidable complexity behind well-chosen abstractions.
    Read the full article...

  • Quanities and Units of Measure
    Of quantities, units and conversions building on patterns described in print by Martin Fowler...
    Read the full article...

  • Roles: Actors, Archetypes, and Interactions
    A look at the idea of roles in software design
    Read the full article...

  • The Example Teaches
    If you are having trouble visualizing whether a class diagram meets the business needs, ask the domain experts to provide a concrete example that you can walk through with them.
    Read the full article...

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